In 1901 Germany blockaded Venezuelan ports because of Venezuela's failure to meet its debts owed to Germany and other European powers.


On two occasions, German warships bombarded Venezuelan ports; thus prompting President Theodore Roosevelt to dispatch several U.S. Navy warships to "monitor" the crisis and enforce the Monroe Doctrine.


Venezuelan President Cipriano Castro asked the U.S. to intervene, thus leading to direct U.S. administration of Venezuelan customs houses until 1907, when all the outstanding obligations to Venezuela's creditors were paid off.


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"A Matter of Extreme Urgency: Theodore Roosevelt, Wilhelm II, and the Venezuela Crisis of 1902"


by Edmund Morris